Saturday, August 15, 2009

Acting for Film

Acting for Film
Cathy Haase | ISBN 1-58115-252-3 | Pdf | 210 pgs | 2 mb
Being an actor, I have a very practical, yet personal approach to things. Whatever the technique or philosophy is, it has to work for me in the field; it has to work when the camera is rolling. Every actor is a unique instrument that only he or she knows how to play, so my advice to you is, take everything in, keep what works for you, and leave the rest for later.

Many people think that film acting is simply a portrayal of a strong personality, that the actor, who possesses a strong ego and a love of performing, just memorizes the lines and jumps before the camera. People think that it takes a certain type of personality to do this, and it does, but what they don’t consider are the intricate techniques of craft that the actor practices and the depth of self-knowledge that she must strive for in developing her instrument. ...
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Advanced Automotive Fault Diagnosis

Advanced Automotive Fault Diagnosis
Tom Denton | ISBN-10: 0-75-066991-8 | Pdf | 288 pgs | 8 mb
The aspect I still enjoy most about working on vehicles is being able to diagnose a fault that has beaten others! This skill takes a few years to develop but it is worth the effort. Diagnostic work is much like that of a detective solving a difficult crime, all the clues are usually there – if you know where to look. I think it was Sherlock Holmes (a fictional detective if you have never heard of him!) who said:

When you have eliminated all which is impossible, then whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth. This is a great thought for a diagnostic technician to keep in mind.
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Human Body I

Human Body I
Britannica Illustrated Science Library
ISBN 978-1-59339-809-5 | Pdf | 56 pgs | 19 mb
How can we understand what we are? What are we made of? Are we aware that all that we do—including reading this book—is the work of a marvelous machine? We know very little about how we are able to be conscious of our own actions; nevertheless, even though we are usually not very aware of it, this community of organs that is the body—an integrated system that includes the brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, muscles, bones, skin, and endocrine glands— acts together in exquisitely regulated harmony.

It is interesting that various mechanisms work together to keep the temperature of the body at 98.6° F (37° C); thanks to the dynamic structure of bones and cartilage, the body is maintained in perfect balance. The body also has a fantastic ability to transform the food it ingests into living tissues, bones, and teeth, all of which contribute to its growth. By this same process, we obtain the energy for working and playing. It is hard to imagine that not long ago the cells of the body of the person reading this book were autonomous and were duplicating themselves freely within the walls of a mother's uterus.

Certainly no one reading this book could recognize herself or himself in those cells. Nevertheless, each cell carried within it the information necessary for the development of that person. Everything that happens inside us is truly fascinating. Therefore, we invite you to enjoy this book. It is full of incredible facts and illustrations that will show you the complex ways each part of the body works.
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Swimming

S w i m m i n g
Handbook of Sports Medicine and Science
Blackwell Science | Joel M. Stager & David A. Tanner
ISBN 0-632-05914-1 | Pdf | 161 pgs | 14 mb
Human performance begins at the cellular level, thus the discussion pertaining to the physiology of swim performance must begin there as well. Ultimately, as a swimmer’s cells go, so goes the rest of the body. An architect knows that when the bricks of a wall begin to crumble, the building will eventually fall! So too, when the metabolic processes of the cells fail, the swimmer can no longer perform.

The concepts that govern cells and their viability are the same as those that govern the body, its tissues, and organ systems. Tissues are collections of different cell types while organs consist of different tissue types. Organs make up systems and systems make up the body, ultimately constituting a competitive swimmer. How a swimmer adapts to a training regime and the causes of a swimmer’s fatigue are determined at the level of the cell; therefore, swim performance is conferred upwards to the complexity level of the entire athlete. The muscle cells are the star performers and the cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal, renal, and CNS represent the supporting cast.
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A-Z Common Symptom Answer Guide

A-Z Common Symptom Answer Guide
McGraw-Hill | ISBN 0-07-141618-8 | Pdf | 240 pgs | 3 mb
Symptoms are what you feel when your body’s machinery isn’t working perfectly. About twenty symptoms account for most of the reasons people go to health professionals. People visit a health professional when the symptoms limit daily activities. They also visit health professionals to learn whether their symptoms indicate an increased risk for serious problems.

The most common group of symptoms is caused when a “bug” (bacteria or virus) has invaded the body. The typical symptoms of a “bug” are cough, fever, chills, runny nose, sneezing, sore throat, earache, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. When caused by a “bug,” these symptoms usually resolve within three weeks.

Symptoms caused by bacteria or viruses are particularly common in young children because the child’s body is just learning how to fight the most common “bugs.” We call this building up immunity. Immunizations are given to young children to help speed up this process and eliminate the problems caused when these bugs are able to invade the body. It’s important to note that in children and adults, symptoms caused by viruses will not be helped by antibiotics.
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How to say I Love You in 100 Languages

  • English - I love you
  • Afrikaans - Ek het jou lief
  • Albanian - Te dua
  • Arabic - Ana behibak (to male)
  • Arabic - Ana behibek (to female)
  • Armenian - Yes kez sirumen
  • Bambara - M'bi fe
  • Bangla - Aamee tuma ke bhalo aashi
  • Belarusian - Ya tabe kahayu
  • Bisaya - Nahigugma ako kanimo
  • Bulgarian - Obicham te
  • Cambodian - Soro lahn nhee ah
  • Cantonese Chinese - Ngo oiy ney a
  • Catalan - T'estimo
  • Cheyenne - Ne mohotatse
  • Chichewa - Ndimakukonda
  • Corsican - Ti tengu caru (to male)
  • Creol - Mi aime jou
  • Croatian - Volim te
  • Czech - Miluji te
  • Danish - Jeg Elsker Dig
  • Dutch - Ik hou van jou
  • Esperanto - Mi amas vin
  • Estonian - Ma armastan sind
  • Ethiopian - Afgreki'
  • Faroese - Eg elski teg
  • Farsi - Doset daram
  • Filipino - Mahal kita
  • Finnish - Mina rakastan sinua
  • French - Je t'aime, Je t'adore
  • Gaelic - Ta gra agam ort
  • Georgian - Mikvarhar
  • German - Ich liebe dich
  • Greek - S'agapo
  • Gujarati - Hoo thunay prem karoo choo
  • Hiligaynon - Palangga ko ikaw
  • Hawaiian - Aloha wau ia oi
  • Hebrew - Ani ohev otah (to female)
  • Hebrew - Ani ohev et otha (to male)
  • Hiligaynon - Guina higugma ko ikaw
  • Hindi - Hum Tumhe Pyar Karte hae
  • Hmong - Kuv hlub koj
  • Hopi - Nu' umi unangwa'ta
  • Hungarian - Szeretlek
  • Icelandic - Eg elska tig
  • Ilonggo - Palangga ko ikaw
  • Indonesian - Saya cinta padamu
  • Inuit - Negligevapse
  • Irish - Taim i' ngra leat
  • Italian - Ti amo
  • Japanese - Aishiteru
  • Kannada - Naanu ninna preetisuttene
  • Kapampangan - Kaluguran daka
  • Kiswahili - Nakupenda
  • Konkani - Tu magel moga cho
  • Korean - Sarang Heyo
  • Latin - Te amo
  • Latvian - Es tevi miilu
  • Lebanese - Bahibak
  • Lithuanian - Tave myliu
  • Malay - Saya cintakan mu / Aku cinta padamu
  • Malayalam - Njan Ninne Premikunnu
  • Mandarin Chinese - Wo ai ni
  • Marathi - Me tula prem karto
  • Mohawk - Kanbhik
  • Moroccan - Ana moajaba bik
  • Nahuatl - Ni mits neki
  • Navaho - Ayor anosh'ni
  • Norwegian - Jeg Elsker Deg
  • Pandacan - Syota na kita!!
  • Pangasinan - Inaru Taka
  • Papiamento - Mi ta stimabo
  • Persian - Doo-set daaram
  • Pig Latin - Iay ovlay ouyay
  • Polish - Kocham Ciebie
  • Portuguese - Eu te amo
  • Romanian - Te ubesk
  • Russian - Ya tebya liubliu
  • Scot Gaelic - Tha gra\dh agam ort
  • Serbian - Volim te
  • Setswana - Ke a go rata
  • Sign Language - ,\,,/ (represents position of fingers when signing'I Love You')
  • Sindhi - Maa tokhe pyar kendo ahyan
  • Sioux - Techihhila
  • Slovak - Lu`bim ta
  • Slovenian - Ljubim te
  • Spanish - Te quiero / Te amo
  • Swahili - Ninapenda wewe
  • Swedish - Jag alskar dig
  • Swiss-German - Ich lieb Di
  • Tagalog - Mahal kita
  • Taiwanese - Wa ga ei li
  • Tahitian - Ua Here Vau Ia Oe
  • Tamil - Nan unnai kathalikaraen
  • Telugu - Nenu ninnu premistunnanu
  • Thai - Chan rak khun (to male)
  • Thai - Phom rak khun (to female)
  • Turkish - Seni Seviyorum
  • Ukrainian - Ya tebe kahayu
  • Urdu - mai aap say pyaar karta hoo
  • Vietnamese - Anh ye^u em (to female)
  • Vietnamese - Em ye^u anh (to male)
  • Welsh - 'Rwy'n dy garu
  • Yiddish - Ikh hob dikh
  • Yoruba - Mo ni fe

Source: somewhere in internet

Clinical Anatomy - Applied anatomy for students and junior doctors


Clinical Anatomy - Applied anatomy for students and
junior doctors

Blackwell | Harold Ellis | ISBN 1-4051-3804-1 | Pdf | 455 pgs | 19 mb
Experience of teaching clinical students at five medical schools and of examining them in sixteen cities and in eight countries has convinced me that there is still an unfortunate hiatus between the anatomy which the student learns in the pre-clinical years and that which is later encountered in the wards and operating theatres.

This book attempts to counter this situation. It does so by highlighting those features of anatomy which are of clinical importance using a vertical blue bar, in radiology, pathology, medicine and midwifery as well as in surgery. It presents the facts which students might reasonably be expected to carry with them during their years on the wards, through their final examinations and into their postgraduate years; it is designed for the clinical student.

Anatomy is a vast subject and, therefore, in order to achieve this goal, I have deliberately carried out a rigorous selection of material so as to cover only those of its thousands of facts which I consider form the necessary anatomical scaffolding for the clinician. Wherever possible practical applications are indicated throughout the text—they cannot, within the limitations of a book of this size, be exhaustive, but I hope that they will act as signposts to the student and indicate how many clinical phenomena can be understood and remembered on simple anatomical grounds.
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Friday, August 14, 2009

Easy Pool Tutor - Step by step

Easy Pool Tutor - Step by step
©Easypooltutor.com | Pdf | 355 pgs | 7 mb
Welcome to www.easypooltutor.com - the only website that freely offers comprehensive information about learning and playing pocket billiards. Whether you are a beginner or an advanced pool player, you can find plenty of good instructional articles here. Lessons are broken down into different topics from basic lessons (Aiming, Basic Shot Making, Advanced Shot Making, Basic Fundamentals) to more advanced topics (The Break, Playing Advanced Position, Playing Safety, English or Side Spin, Banks, Kicks & Diamond Systems) plus Practice Drills and determining your Skill Rating. There's also a topic about the Mental Game, Game Rules plus articles dealing with Choosing the right equipment and Maintaining your equipment as well as Miscellaneous articles related to playing the game of pool.

This PDF document is a compilation of all the lessons at www.easypooltutor.com thru July 15, 2004.
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Makeup Secrets Revealed 4

EYEBROWS

Makeup artists will tell you, eyebrows can make or break your face. Eyebrows serve as a natural frame for your eyes. They move with your every expression to emphasize what you say and how you feel.

Begin by brushing brows with a brow brush. To measure your brows, hold a pencil vertically along the outer corner of your nose to the inner brow. If your brow line overlaps onto the bridge, remove the excess hair. If the brow falls short, pencil it in. To find where your brow should taper or end, hold the pencil from the outer corner of the nose across the corner of the eye to the outer brow.

The brow should end at this point. Brows can be filled in to alter or emphasize. Brow pencils or brow powders can be used.

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TIP: Always use a brow color that is as natural looking as possible. The main objective is to define not create over-powering brows. To fill in, comb first, then use feather like strokes with your pencil to fill in. To create a more natural look, comb again after applying the pencil.
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TIP: When using a brow definer or brush on brow, the same method is used. Comb, apply with a brush and then comb again. Sacha’s Dark Brown Single Eyeshadow is excellent for darker brows.
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TIP: When using powdered brow color, use a harder bristled angle brow brush and draw tiny hair-like strokes. When using a brow pencil, maintain a sharp edge and use the same technique as the brush. You may use a disposable mascara wand to soften. The trick is comb, apply, comb.
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TIP: If your brows are low or close to the eyes, bleaching them can “open up” the face.

CHEEKS

BLUSH

Sacha’s exqusite blush adds warmth or color to the face. The look most women want to achieve is that of a warm, natural glow.

Blushers are available in powder, cream or liquid and in a wide variety of tones. Liquid and cream blush should be applied before powder. Generally most women prefer to use a powder blush as it is much easier to apply.

For easy application, sweep blush downward from the ear to mid-cheek, beginning in line with the top of the ear and ending at the end of the apple of your cheek. It is best to choose colors that are close to your skin tone.

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TIP: Always remember less is best.
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TIP: Be sure to do the blush test. Once you are done with your entire makeup stand back, look in the mirror. Check to see if your face is ‘balanced’. You should have on just enough blush to make you look as though you are blushing. If you have on any more than that you need to tone it down.
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TIP: To soften blush apply some powder over your blush. In the evening you have a little more liberty and so you could go a bit heavier according to the look you wish to achieve.

Our Satin Powders in Golden Bronze and Candy Floss can be used as blushers and are ideal for night-time glamour.

LIPS

LIPSTICK

The most popular beauty product world over, is lipstick. Form the corner store to the largest cosmetic counter you are sure to find lipsticks available. There is wide variety of brands, colors, textures and finishes to create those much sought after lush, beautiful lips.

You can find lipsticks in traditional tubes, pots, pencils, and even wands with innovative designs emerging daily. While color selection is a personal choice, current fashion trends also play a big part in influencing a woman choice of lipstick.

To create that perfect pair of lips you should start by lining with a neutral colored pencil following your natural lip line. Using a lip brush fill in with lip color of your choice. Use your lip brush to blend the two so that there are no harsh edges.

Sacha lipsticks come in cream, frosted and matte shades.

The secret of creating the picture-perfect lips lies in the choice of color and correct application.

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TIP: If you are not fortunate to have full lips, wear the lightest, frostiest lipsticks you can find. They will cause your lips to look fuller. Follow with Sacha lipgloss.
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TIP: You should use Sacha’s Vitamin E Lip Protector before application of any type of
lipstick. It moisturizes and nourishes the lips preventing dryness and cracking.
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TIP: To create your own smudge-resistant lipstick blot your lips with one sheet of twoply tissue. Reapply lipstick and blot again. This will absorb the oils in the product and leave the pigment and matte waxes.
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TIP: If you are over 40 we advise that you should avoid wearing matte lipsticks. You will look best with a little shine on your lips. Always use a lip liner since it builds a dam that keeps the lipstick from ‘bleeding’.
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TIP: To remove lipstick from clothing, apply glycerine on the spot, rub lightly and wash as normal.

CAMOUFLAGE MAKEUP

Sacha’s Kamaflage Cover Cream is the newest line of corrective cosmetics on the market. It is smudge-resistant, waterproof and perfectly matches every skintone. It applies easily, dries quickly and has super staying power.

Kamaflage is a maximum coverage foundation that provides excellent, natural-looking coverage. It easily conceals marks, acne, stretch marks, birthmarks and other skin blemishes. It is extremely long wearing and is a favorite among makeup artists for swimsuit shoots and beauty pageants.

For more information on this incredible line of camouflage concealers please visit us at http://www.sachacosmetics.com/camouflage.htm.

KAMAFLAGE COVER CREAM

These are waterproof, smudge-resistant, maximum coverage foundations which easily cover acne, marks, vitiligo, rosacea, and other skin blemishes that may appear on the face.

First moisturize your face and then apply your Kamaflage Cover Cream with a cosmetic sponge. Blend a little at a time until the area or entire face is covered. Set with Kamaflage Setting Powder and quick spray with Sacha’s Fix It Spray to further set. Remove with Kamaflage Remover.

KAMAFLAGE LEG & BODY COVER

Use Kamaflage Leg & Body Cover to conceal stretch marks, birthmarks, varicose veins and other skin imperfections. It is waterproof and smudge-resistant.

KAMAFLAGE SETTING POWDER

This colorless powder is used to set the Kamaflage Cover Cream and Leg & Body Makeup.

KAMAFLAGE CLEANSER

Easily removes all traces of Kamaflage Cover Cream and Leg & Body Cover.

FIVE MINUTE MAKEOVER

STEP 1 - FOUNDATION
If you wear foundation, apply evenly onto your face with a cosmetic sponge. A sheer application works well for daytime, whereas at night you may apply a bit more.

STEP 2 - CONCEALER
If you have any areas like dark under-eye circles, blemishes, red spots, or broken capillaries, concealer will do the job. It is easiest if you apply this with a fine brush to the area that you wish to conceal and then blend with your fingertips.

STEP 3 – POWDER
Loose powder is better to set your foundation because the finish is lighter. Apply it lightly with a large powder brush for a sheer finish, a puff or sponge for a heavier finish. Remember to dust a little under your eyes to set your concealer (helps prevent creasing).

STEP 4 – EYES
For a quick and easy eye makeup, sweep a single wash of color over the entire eye in a neutral tone. Don’t forget your brows. Apply your liner, then mascara.

STEP 5 – LIPS
Lipsticks as well should be of the same color family as the rest of the face. Line your lips, and apply a quick coat of Sacha’s Vitamin E Stick. Fill in with your lip color of choice. Gloss is optional.

STEP 6 – BLUSH
To determine the intensity of your blush, take your cue from the rest of your face. During the day you should go for a light sweep of color. At night you may add a bit more color or glitz with light dusting of Sacha’s Satin Powders.

STEP 7 - FINISH
After completing the last step, lightly spray Sacha’s Fix It Spray over the entire face to set your makeup and make it longer wearing.
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TIP: Clean your brushes as often as possible and they will last forever. Spray alcohol on a sheet of paper towel and sweep your brushes lightly over it. For brushes
made with natural hair, it is recommended that you shampoo and condition them once a week.

Afterthoughts

Well there you have it. Everything you need to know to get started and well on your way to looking naturally more beautiful. To get the most out of this eBook, if you have not already done so, I strongly advise that you print it out and keep it handy for easy reference.

If you have any questions or comments of any kind, please send me an email at makeupartists@sachacosmetics.com and let me know. I’m here to help you look your very best, always remember that.

Take care, and until next we speak....

Yours Sincerely,
Kamla Regrello
Head Makeup Artist
Sacha Cosmetics
email: kamla@sachacosmetics.com
makeupartists@sachacosmetics.com
website: http://www.sachacosmetics.com

P.S. - Don’t forget to to sign up for my FREE monthly newsletter to keep up to date on
latest trends, colors, techniques and makeup tips.

Copyright notice:
Copyright 2002 - Sacha Cosmetics Limited. All rights reserved.

Disclaimer:
This publication is distributed with the understanding that the publisher
is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, medical or other
professional advice. If legal advice or other expert assistance is
required, the services of a competent professional should be sought.

Contact Information:
email: kamla@sachacosmetics.com
website: http://www.sachacosmetics.com

Part 1, Part 2, Part 3

100 Statistical Tests

100 Statistical Tests
Gopal K Kanji | ISBN-13 978 1 4129 2376 7 | Pdf | 257 pgs | 2 mb
Having collected together a number of tests, it is necessary to consider what can be tested, and we include here some very general remarks about the general problem of hypothesis testing. Students regard this topic as one full of pitfalls for the unwary, and even teachers and experienced statisticians have been known to misinterpret the conclusions of their analysis.

Broadly speaking there are two basic concepts to grasp before commencing. First, the tests are designed neither to prove nor to disprove hypotheses.We never set out to prove anything; our aim is to show that an idea is untenable as it leads to an unsatisfactorily small probability. Second, the hypothesis we are trying to disprove is always chosen to be the one in which there is no change; for example, there is no difference between the two population means, between the two samples, etc. This is why it is usually referred to as the null hypothesis, H0. If these concepts were firmly held in mind, we believe that the subject of hypothesis testing would lose a lot of its mystique. (However, it is only fair to point out that some hypotheses are not concerned with such matters.)
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LIST OF TESTS
  • Test 1 To investigate the significance of the difference between an assumed
    population mean and sample mean when the population variance is known.
  • Test 2 To investigate the significance of the difference between the means of two samples when the variances are known and equal.
  • Test 3 To investigate the significance of the difference between the means of two samples when the variances are known and unequal.
  • Test 4 To investigate the significance of the difference between an assumed proportion and an observed proportion.
  • Test 5 To investigate the assumption that the proportions of elements from two populations are equal, based on two samples, one from each population.
  • Test 6 To investigate the significance of the difference between two counts.
  • Test 7 To investigate the significance of the difference between an assumed population mean and a sample mean when the population variance is unknown.
  • Test 8 To investigate the significance of the difference between the means of two populations when the population variances are unknown but equal.
  • Test 9 To investigate the significance of the difference between the means of two populations when the population variances are unknown and unequal.
  • Test 10 To investigate the significance of the difference between two population means when no assumption is made about the population variances.
  • Test 11 To investigate the significance of the regression coefficient.
  • Test 12 To investigate whether the difference between the sample correlation coefficient and zero is statistically significant.
  • Test 13 To investigate the significance of the difference between a correlation coefficient and a specified value.
  • Test 14 To investigate the significance of the difference between the correlation coefficients for a pair of variables occurring from two different populations.
  • Test 15 To investigate the difference between a sample variance and an assumed population variance.
  • Test 16 To investigate the significance of the difference between two population variances.
  • Test 17 To investigate the difference between two population variances when there is correlation between the pairs of observations.
  • Test 18 To compare the results of two experiments, each of which yields a multivariate result. In other words, we wish to know if the mean pattern obtained from the first experiment agrees with the mean pattern obtained for the second.
  • Test 19 To investigate the origin of one series of values for random variates, when one of two markedly different populations may have produced that particular series.
  • Test 20 To investigate the significance of the difference between a frequency distribution based on a given sample and a normal frequency distribution with the same mean and the same variance.
  • Test 21 To investigate the significance of the difference between a suspicious extreme value and other values in the sample.
  • Test 22 To test the null hypothesis that the K samples came from K populations with the same mean.
  • Test 23 To investigate the significance of the difference between two correlated proportions.
  • Test 24 To investigate the significance of the difference between population variance and an assumed value.
  • Test 25 To investigate the significance of the difference between two counted results.
  • Test 26 To investigate the significance of the difference between the overall mean of K subpopulations and an assumed value for the population mean.
  • Test 27 To investigate which particular set of mean values or linear combination of mean values shows differences with the other mean values.
  • Test 28 To investigate the significance of all possible differences between
    population means when the sample sizes are unequal.
  • Test 29 To investigate the significance of all possible differences between population means when the sample sizes are equal.
  • Test 30 To investigate the significance of the differences when several treatments are compared with a control.
  • Test 31 To investigate the significance of the differences between the variances of samples drawn from normally distributed populations.
  • Test 32 To investigate the significance of the differences between the variances of normally distributed populations when the sample sizes are equal.
  • Test 33 To investigate the significance of the difference between a frequency distribution based on a given sample and a normal frequency distribution.
  • Test 34 To investigate the significance of the difference between one rather large variance and other variances.
  • Test 35 To investigate the significance of the difference between an observed distribution and specified population distribution.
  • Test 36 To investigate the significance of the difference between two population distributions, based on two sample distributions.
  • Test 37 To investigate the significance of the differences between observed frequencies and theoretically expected frequencies.
  • Test 38 To investigate the significance of the differences betweencounts.
  • Test 39 To investigate the significance of the differences between observed frequencies for two dichotomous distributions.
  • Test 40 To investigate the significance of the differences between observed frequencies for two dichotomous distributions when the sample sizes are large.
  • Test 41 To investigate the significance of the differences between observed frequency distributions with a dichotomous classification.
  • Test 42 To investigate the significance of the differences between distributions of alternative data.
  • Test 43 To investigate the significance of the differences between two distributions based on two samples spread over some classes.
  • Test 44 To investigate the difference in frequency when classified by one attribute after classification by a second attribute.
  • Test 45 To investigate the significance of the difference between the population median and a specified value.
  • Test 46 To investigate the significance of the difference between the medians of two distributions when the observations are paired.
  • Test 47 To investigate the significance of the difference between a population mean and a specified value.
  • Test 48 To investigate the significance of the difference between the means of two similarly shaped distributions.
  • Test 49 To test if two random samples could have come from two populations with the same frequency distribution.
  • Test 50 To test if two random samples could have come from two populations with the same frequency distribution.
  • Test 51 To test if K random samples could have come from K populations with the same frequency distribution.
  • Test 52 To test if two random samples could have come from two populations with the same means.
  • Test 53 To test if two random samples could have come from two populations with the same variance.
  • Test 54 To test if K random samples could have come from K populations with the same mean.
  • Test 55 To test if K random samples came from populations with the same mean.
  • Test 56 To investigate the difference between the largest mean and K − 1 other population means.
  • Test 57 To test the null hypothesis that all treatments have the same effect as the control treatment.
  • Test 58 To investigate the significance of the correlation between two series of observations obtained in pairs.
  • Test 59 To investigate the significance of the correlation between two series of observations obtained in pairs.
  • Test 60 To test the null hypothesis that the mean μ of a population with known variance has the value μ0 rather than the value μ1.
  • Test 61 To test the null hypothesis that the standard deviation σ of a population with a known mean has the value σ0 rather than the value σ1.
  • Test 62 To test the null hypothesis that the parameter of a population has the value p0 rather than p1.
  • Test 63 To test the null hypothesis that the fluctuations in a series have a random nature.
  • Test 64 To test the null hypothesis that the fluctuations in a series have a random nature.
  • Series could be serially correlated.
  • Test 65 To test the null hypothesis that the variations in a series are independent of the order of the observations.
  • Test 66 To test the null hypothesis that the fluctuations of a sample are independent of the order in the sequence.
  • Test 67 To test the null hypothesis that observations in a sample are independent of the order in the sequence.
  • Test 68 To test the null hypothesis that two samples have been randomly selected from the same population.
  • Test 69 To test the significance of the order of the observations in a sample.
  • Test 70 To test the random occurrence of plus and minus signs in a sequence of observations.
  • Test 71 To test that the fluctuations in a sample have a random nature.
  • Test 72 To compare the significance of the differences in response for K treatments applied to n subjects.
  • Test 73 To investigate the significance of the differences in response for K treatments applied to n subjects.
  • Test 74 To investigate the significance of the correlation between n series of rank numbers, assigned by n numbers of a committee to K subjects.
  • Test 75 To test a model for the distribution of a random variable of the continuous type.
  • Test 76 To test the equality of h independent multinomial distributions.
  • Test 77 To test for non-additivity in a two-way classification.
  • Test 78 To test the various effects for a two-way classification with an equal number of observations per cell.
  • Test 79 To test the main effects in the case of a two-way classification with unequal numbers of observations per cell.
  • Test 80 To test for nestedness in the case of a nested or hierarchical classification.
  • Test 81 To test the presence of regression of variable Y on the observed value X.
  • Test 82 To test the linearity of regression between the X variable and the Y variable.
  • Test 83 To test the significance of the reduction of uncertainty of past events.
  • Test 84 To test the significance of the difference in sequential connections across groups.
  • Test 85 To test whether the population value of each regression coefficient is zero in a multiple regression model.
  • Test 86 To test the variances in a balanced random effects model of random variables.
  • Test 87 To test the interaction effects in a two-way classification random effects model with equal number of observations per cell.
  • Test 88 To test a parameter of a rectangular population using the likelihood ratio method.
  • Test 89 To test a parameter of an exponential population using the uniformly most powerful test method.
  • Test 90 To test the parameter of a Bernoulli population using the sequential test method.
  • Test 91 To test the ratio between the mean and the standard deviation of anormal population where both are unknown, using the sequential method.
  • Test 92 To test whether the error terms in a regression model are autocorrelated.
  • Test 93 To test the medians of two populations.
  • Test 94 To test whether a proposed distribution is a suitable probabilistic model for the sample data.
  • Test 95 To test whether the observed angles have a tendency to cluster around a given angle, indicating a lack of randomness in the distribution.
  • Test 96 To test whether the given distribution fits a random sample of angular values.
  • Test 97 To test whether two samples from circular observations differ significantly from each other with respect to mean direction or angular variance.
  • Test 98 To test whether the mean angles of two independent circular observations differ significantly from each other.
  • Test 99 To test whether two independent random samples from circular observations differ significantly from each other with respect to mean angle, angular variance or both.
  • Test 100 To test whether the treatment effects of independent samples from von Mises populations differ significantly from each other.
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The Concise Encyclopedia of Statistics

The Concise Encyclopedia of Statistics
Yadolah Dodge | ISBN: 978-0-387-32833-1 | Pdf | 612 pgs | 6 mb

With this concise volume we hope to satisfy the needs of a large scientific community previously served mainly by huge encyclopedic references. Rather than aiming at a comprehensive coverage of our subject, we have concentrated on the most important topics, but explained those as deeply as space has allowed. The result is a compact work whichwe trust leaves no central topics out.

Entries have a rigid structure to facilitate the finding of information. Each term introduced here includes a definition, history, mathematical details, limitations in using the terms followed by examples, references and relevant literature for further reading. The reference is arranged alphabetically to provide quick access to the fundamental tools of statistical methodology and biographies of famous statisticians, including some currents ones who continue to contribute to the science of statistics, such as Sir David Cox, Bradley Efron and T.W. Anderson just to mention a few. The critera for selecting these statisticians, whether living or absent, is of course rather personal and it is very possible that some of those famous persons deserving of an entry are absent. I apologize sincerely for any such unintentional omissions.

In addition, an attempt has been made to present the essential information about statistical tests, concepts, and analytical methods in language that is accessible to practitioners and students and the vast community using statistics inmedicine, engineering, physical science, life science, social science, and business/economics.
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Anak Hiperaktif Bukan Anak Nakal


BANYAK orangtua yang mengeluhkan anak balitanya superaktif. Tidak bisa diam, jumpalitan, tidak fokus, nakal, pethakilan, dan sejenisnya. Kalangan medis menyebut balita jenis ini masuk kategori anak hiperaktif.

Hiperaktif merupakan gangguan pertumbuhan yang cukup lazim dialami balita. Rata-rata terjadi sebelum mereka berusia 7 tahun. Jika menemui balita demikian, kaum ibu tidak perlu panik dan cemas. Tahap awal yang mesti dilakukan adalah menyadari adanya gejala. Tidak semua tingkah laku yang kelewatan dapat digolongkan sebagai hiperaktif. Karena itu, langkah berikutnya adalah konsultasi dengan ahli terapi psikologi anak. Ini penting karena gangguan hiperaktivitas bisa berpengaruh pada kesehatan mental dan fisik anak, serta kemampuannya dalam menyerap pelajaran dan bergaul. Konsultasi diperlukan agar orangtua memperoleh gambaran apa yang mesti dilakukan agar sifat hiperaktif bisa berkembang ke arah yang positif.

Celakanya, masih banyak guru yang tidak tahu menangani anak hiperaktif ini. Karena itu biasanya mereka "asal mencap" anak tersebut sebagai anak nakal. Dan biasanya kalau sudah mencap nakal, guru tidak mau menangani lagi, atau justru menangani dengan cara yang salah, seperti dihukum, dimarahi, dan lain-lain.

Anak hiperaktif bisa dilihat tanda-tandanya sejak bayi, yaitu mudah kaget dan terbangun oleh suara yang tidak keras. Ini akibat refleks moronya terlalu aktif. Selain itu ketika tumbuh lagi, ia banyak sekali melakukan gerakan yang bertujuan, misalnya mondar-mandir mengambil bola.

Intinya, untuk sampai pada diagnosis hiperaktif, ada tiga hal yang harus dipenuhi, yaitu:

1. Sulit berkonsentrasi. Contoh: ceroboh, pelupa, tidak terorganisir dengan baik.
2. Sulit menahan diri. Contoh: suka memotong pembicaraan orang lain, tidak suka menunggu antrean.
3. Banyak melakukan gerakan. Apa pun yang dilakukannya, ia seperti tidak merasa lelah.

Selain itu, diperlukan juga tes-tes tertentu, seperti observasi perilaku, observasi mengerjakan tugas-tugas, bermain, dan mengerjakan soal-soal tes.

Tanya
Apakah anak hiperaktif bisa dikenali sejak dalam kandungan, dan apakah ada kemungkinan untuk sembuh?
Endah S, Jakarta

Jawab
Pada beberapa kasus bisa dikenali sejak dalam kandungan. Namun beberapa yang lain tidak. Hiperaktif bukanlah penyakit, jadi tidak ada istilah sakit atau sembuh. Lebih tepat kalau dibilang bagaimana mengolah dan bagaimana bisa hidup nyaman dengan anak hiperkatif. Faktor sebabnya belum ketemu. Dari beberapa kasus diteliti dan ditemukan misalnya ada yang paling umum adalah kekurangan neurotransmitter di otak. Karenanya dokter biasanya memberikan obat-obatan yang fungsinya menambah neurotrasmitter. Tapi, hiperaktif itu ada bermacam-macam pemicunya. Ada yang karena alergi pada zat-zat kimia, ada yang memang karena pola asuh yang salah.

Tanya
Apakah hiperaktif bisa dialami oleh anak laki-laki dan perempuan. Bagaimana terapi untuk mengatasinya?
Suhalim Rahmat, Semarang

Jawab
Hiperaktif tidak memandang bulu. Anak laki-laki atau perempuan bisa mengalaminya. Penelitian faktor resikonya 5 kali lebih besar untuk semua jenis gangguan perkembangan. Untuk terapi, mesti ke ahlinya seperti psikolog atau klinik anak tumbuh kembang. Di sana anak akan diidentifikasi dengan jelas sehingga ketahuan apa sebabnya. Kalau anak tidak bisa konsentrasi, maka dia tidak bisa mengolah input yang masuk, diberi terapi pengajaran supaya dia bisa bicara. Orang bicara kan karena dia mendengar, memasukkan ke otak mengolah lalu memproduksi lagi. Jadi gangguannya sampai ke soal gangguan bicara.

Tanya
Ada anak yang kalau marah suka memukul kepala. Bicaranya juga belum lancar. Kenapa bisa terjadi hal ini?
Khoirul Sajadi, Serang

Jawab
Anak marah biasanya karena ingin kemauannya dituruti. Untuk mengatasinya, butuh ketegasan dari orangtua. Waktu anak marah, jangan diberi tanggapan apa pun. Bilang baik-baik bahwa kita tidak mau bicara sebelum dia diam tenang. Untuk anak yang salah satunya sulit konsentrasi, dia mesti dilatih dengan banyak komunikasi/siklus komuniaksinya mesti nyambung.

Konsultan: Ike R Sugianto
Psikolog Anak dan Remaja dari Universitas Indonesia

Healtylife
Edisi 07/VIII - Juli 2009

Thursday, August 13, 2009

Hipoglikemi pada Anak

Hipoglikemi merupakan suatu kondisi saat kadar gula dalam darah di bawah kadar normal. Hipoglikemi jarang terjadi, namun sekali terjadi pada anak-anak cukup berbahaya. Sebab sel-sel dalam tubuh, terutama otak membutuhkan glukosa sebagai sumber energi. Jika kebutuhan tersebut tidak terpenuhi dalam jangka waktu tertentu, maka akan terjadi kematian sel dan pada akhirnya akan mengakibatkan kerusakan organ. Dengan demikian, perlu tindakan cepat untuk mencegah hipoglikemi berkembang jadi berbahaya dengan segera membawa anak ke rumah sakit untuk penanganan lebih lanjut agar tidak terjadi kerusakan organ. Yang dapat Anda lakukan adalah mengenali gejala-gejalanya dan memberikan pertolongan pertama yang tepat.

Gejala Hipoglikemi

Seseorang yang mengalami hipoglikemi akan merasa lemah, mengantuk, kebingungan, pusing, lapar, sakit kepala, berkeringat, denyut jantung cepat, dan perasaan lembab. Pada kasus yang sangat parah, maka anak menjadi tidak sadar dan bahkan bisa mengalami koma.

Apa penyebabnya?

>Pemberian insulin yang berlebihan pada anak penderita diabetes
>Anak muntah, sehingga semua makanannya terbuang
>Makan terlambat
>Aktivitas yang berlebihan, dan asupan makanan yang kurang
>Gangguan penyerapan gula, atau mengalami intoleransi fruktosa.

Diagnosis pasti hipoglikemi

>Anak merasakan gejala-gejala hipoglikemi
>Gejala tersebut akan hilang setelah diberikan gula.

Pertolongan Pertama

>Cobalah bedakan apakah gejala yang dialami memang hipoglikemi, karena gejala tersebut mirip dengan hal yang lain misalnya syok, stres, ketakutan, atau sekedar lemas yang biasa.

>Cara membedakannya adalah dengan mengingat, kapan terakhir kali anak Anda makan, apakah anak Anda muntah sehingga semua makanannya keluar? Ataukah ia terlambat makan? Ataukah anak Anda terlalu banyak melakukan aktivitas akhir-akhir ini? Bawalah anak Anda ke tempat yang lebih sejuk.















>Berikan minuman yang mengandung banyak gula, misalnya sirup, teh manis, jus.















>Tunggu sesaat, jika keluhan tersebut tidak hilang selama 10 menit setelah pemberian minuman, segera bawa ke dokter, karena bisa jadi kondisinya sudah menjadi serius.
>Atau jika anak tidak bisa sama sekali diberikan asupan minuman atau makanan melalui mulutnya, maka kondisi itu merupakan pertanda untuk segera dibawa ke dokter.

Penanganan anak penderita diabetes yang mengalami hipoglikemia Penderita diabetes anak biasanya termasuk dalam tipe I diabetes (yang tergantung insulin). Jika seorang anak yang mengalami diabetes mengalami gejala hipoglikemi, tidak ada jalan lain kecuali harus dibawa ke dokter, karena kondisi ini dapat mengancam jiwanya. Pemberian glukosa melalui oral terkadang tidak dapat mengejar kebutuhan gula tersebut, mereka harus diberikan glukosa melalui infus untuk dapat menyelamatkan jiwanya.


Healtylife

Edisi 07/VIII - Juli 2009

Makeup Secrets Revealed 3

DUAL ACTIV POWDER FOUNDATION:

In today’s fast paced world, the modern woman is always in search of a “quick fix”. To her, time is precious, yet she needs to look great in seconds. Many brands offer their solution to this - cream to powder, dual activ, three-in-one - basically a multi-functional product.

Sacha’s Dual Activ Foundation, as the name implies, is a foundation and powder in one. It provides the easy application of a powder with the excellent coverage of a foundation. The outstanding feature of this foundation is that it begins as a powder and ends as a powder. It is exquisitely yellow-based and ideal for normal to oily skin.

HOW DO I USE MY FOUNDATION?

The very first step in selecting your perfect foundation is assessing your skin type, to determine the type of foundation that would work best for you.

Selecting the right shade of foundation for your skin tone is critical. Most women have yellow-based skin and need to wear foundations with a yellow base. All Sacha foundations are yellow-based and progresses in steps from the lightest to the darkest shade.

If you need to identify the shade of foundation which is perfect for your skin tone visit us at http://www.sachacosmetics.com/skintones.html. Follow the simple instructions and identify the shade of foundation which will perfectly match your natural skin color.





























Prepare your face with the appropriate cleanser and toner. Follow with Sacha’s Daily Moisturizer which is an excellent under makeup base. It improves the application of your foundation and adds to its wearability. It is a must for all women especially those with dry skin.

Apply your foundation with a cosmetic sponge for more control and a smoother application.

Liquid foundation should be blended in a little at a time until the entire face is completed.

Cream foundation should be applied to the face in long sweeping motions using your cosmetic sponge. Blend evenly until you create a smooth flawless finish. A powder foundation should be applied as you would your normal compact powder.

Remember proper blending is the key - blend your foundation under the jawline, into the hairline, on the ear lobes. Pay special attention to the corners of the nose, corners of the mouth, over and under the eyes. If you need to retouch a particular spot, re-apply lightly and blend. Lightly powder with a translucent powder to set your foundation.

------------------------------
TIP: Test foundation along your jawline - not on your hand and definitely not on the inside of your wrist. View it under different light settings. It must match the natural color of your neck.
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TIP: For easy transition from day to night makeup, touch up with Sacha’s Dual Activ Foundation. If will provide the finish of a powder with the coverage of a foundation.
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TIP: Dampen your cosmetic sponge to create a sheer finish.

CONCEALER

Concealers are of a denser composition than regular foundations and are generally available in sticks, tubes, pots, and creams. Concealers can be used to cover blemishes, dark spots, ruddy areas, marks, veins, freckles or under eye circles.

Your concealer should be one shade lighter than your foundation (and only in extreme cases should you use a concealer two shades lighter).

Using a concealer that is too light or too pink will give the appearance of ‘owl eyes’. In other words, it will emphasize the dark area instead of concealing it.

Apply Sacha’s concealer with a small fine tipped brush for an accurate application. As with any other application, blending is the key.

Always set your concealer with a sheer, translucent powder to prevent creasing.

------------------------------
TIP: Be sure to cover the inside of the nose bridge and the outer corner of your eye where we tend to get dark areas.
------------------------------
TIP: You can remove years from your face by applying concealer to the little downward turning lines at the corner of your mouth.

FACE POWDERS

Face powders are an essential step in your makeup routine. They are available in either compact or loose form.

It is important to set your foundation with a loose powder. This helps to keep your foundation in place. Compact powders should be used for touch ups.

Sacha’s Translucent Powders are light in texture providing a sheer, natural finish. They are lightly tinted and work best with Sacha’s yellow-based foundations.

The basic idea is, if you use a translucent powder over your foundation or concealer, it will set your makeup without adding too much extra color.

------------------------------
TIP: For warmer climates or in the summer, take special care to set your foundation with a loose powder, as heat tends to create slipping or running of your foundation. This is especially so in the case of cream foundation as they tend to have a higher oil content.

If you have extra oily skin, try our Ultra-Matte Translucent Powders in Light, Medium or Dark shades. These powders were first developed for the Miss Universe Pageant 1999 to keep the delegates shine free during long days of shooting. They are sheer and contain loads of oil natural
absorbers.

Complexion powders on the other hand, have a greater degree of color and because they are more opaque, can be used alone. They can also be used with your foundation to set, adjust or enhance.

Some women wear foundations that are too pink and try to neutralize the redness by finishing with one of our yellow-based powders. We strongly advise against this since this will result in the color of your makeup turning orange. Remember red plus yellow equals orange!

EYES

EYESHADOW

While there are rigid rules when it comes to foundations, it is with your eye color that you can allow your creative side to take flight.

Your eyes are the focal point of your face. Be sure that your eye makeup techniques and choice of colors are most flattering to your eye shape and color.

With eye color you can create the illusion of new shapes and sizes. Always keep in mind that light colors highlight and dark colors shrink or recede.

Sacha’s powder eyeshadows come in singles or easy to use, color coordinated trios. Our cream eye shadows are available in duos. All Sacha Eye Shadows are highly pigmented. Simply put, the shade you see in the container is what you will see on your eyes.


When applying eyeshadow sweep the lightest shade over the entire area from lash line to brow. This shade will be your base color and is to your eye, what your foundation is to your face. It will hold your color and prevent creasing.

------------------------------
TIP: On days when you are really pressed for time, apply the base color to the eye then skip to mascara and you’re done.

After applying your base color, apply a medium shade on the lower lid. This is the part of the eye that most women apply eyeshadow. Blend into your base shade.

A third color can then be added. Use a deep, dark shade to create depth. Apply this shade along the lash line, and at the outer corner of the eye, emphasizing the crease of the eye and brow bone. Blend well. This is your accent shade and when used can create a more defined eye.

How you apply this contour shade can help eyes look bigger, smaller, wider set or closer together. The key is to blend so well that attention is still drawn to your eye, not your eye makeup.

For eye shadow that looks “just applied” for hours. First, base your eyelid with Sacha’s Kamaflage Cover Cream in a shade that matches your skintone. Next, apply a neutral shade of eye shadow or a color nearest your skin color over the Cover Cream. The process of the powder
adhering to the cream will create a smudge resistant base for your eye shadow. It will last forever.

Sacha’s powder eyeshadows can be used wet or dry. Dampen your brush or applicator and create your own liquid eyeliner in any of Sacha’s vibrant colors. Wet application of Sacha’s eyeshadows serves to intensify the color.

Sacha’s cream eyeshadows can be used as a single color or with the coordinated duo shade. These cream eyeshadows can be coordinated with our powder shadows, so that a cream eyeshadow can be used as an under base with a matching powder shadow as a sealant. The best
applicators for any cream eye shadow are your fingertips.

For extra glamour, use Sacha’s shimmering, iridescent Satin Powders to highlight your eyes. With our Satin Powders it is easy to transform your day makeup into a glamorous night look.

------------------------------
TIP: When applying eyeshadow to the crease of the eye, keep your eyes open and slightly tilt your head backward. This will enable you to better see the shape you are creating and allowing the shadow to go into the crease.
------------------------------
TIP: For more mature skin use iridescent shades sparingly.
------------------------------
TIP: If you have puffy eyelids do not use iridescent or frosted shadows in light colors or white. Use softer, matte colors.

MASCARA

Next to lipstick, mascara is your most effective makeup tool. It is a great eye opener that emphasizes the lashes. Apart from the obvious choice of color, many brands promise to thicken, lengthen, darken, volumize and condition your lashes. They are also available in waterproof and regular formulas.

Using a proper application technique when applying mascara is extremely important to achieve a finished look. You must ensure that the mascara covers the lashes from the root to the tip of the lash.

For your upper lashes, wiggle the mascara wand back and forth at the base of the lashes to deposit color before rolling the brush through your lashes. Coat lashes from the very base to the tips with full strokes. This method creates a thicker looking lash with the ends separated and the
base well defined.

Hold the wand vertically when applying mascara to lower lashes, running this from side to side. Be extremely careful as to avoid smudging the under eye area.

When applying more than one coat, combing through lashes between coats will help prevent clumping.

Sacha’s Clear Mascara can be used to create a natural effect or on the brows for extra control.

------------------------------
TIP: If your mascara is new and the deposit on the wand is plentiful, tissue off the wand before applying to prevent smudging.
------------------------------
TIP: To get more product on the mascara brush try twirling the brush. Pumping it will cause the product to dry out sooner.
------------------------------
TIP: Try experimenting with different colors of mascara – maybe brown, navy or green.

EYELINER

The eyeliner market is extremely saturated with many brands offering a variety of options in terms of color, texture, and type. Most companies offer pencil, liquid, felt tip and cake eyeliners.

The tissue of the eye area is extremely delicate, therefore when choosing an eyeliner pencil be sure to select one that is soft enough to glide easily. This is one aspect of makeup application that not only takes practice but an extremely steady hand.

Pencil eyeliners tend to be quite popular because they are easier to control and also can give the look that you want to achieve. Liquid eyeliners on the other hand require more practice. They create preciselines once applied with enough control.

The new kid on the block - felt tip liners – are quite similar to liquid eyeliners in consistency and offers the user a bit more control. Cake eyeliners, traditionally used by professionals are now becoming very popular. A new trend is to use eyeshadows as eyeliners. The advantage of this that you have so many more colors with which to line.

For wide set eyes, emphasize the inner corners of the eyes. For close set eyes, emphasize the outer corners, keeping the inner corners highlighted. For drooping eyes, turn the outer end of the liner in an upward direction.

------------------------------
TIP: When using an eye pencil, open your mouth slightly to relax the eye muscles. It will make lining a lot easier without having to pull or tug at your lid.
------------------------------
TIP: Apply eyeliner as close as possible and even into the lashes to avoid the white line you sometimes get when liner and lashes don’t connect.

Part 1, Part 2, Part 4

Developing Thinking in Statistics

Developing Thinking in Statistics
Alan Graham | ISBN-13 978-1-4129-1167-2 (pbk) | Pdf | 289 pgs | 4 mb

Statistical thinking will one day be as necessary a qualification for efficient citizenship as the ability to read and write. (H.G.Wells, 1865, quoted in Weaver, 1952).

Statistics is a key area of the school mathematics curriculum where mathematics and the real world meet.The term ‘data handling’ is sometimes used to refer to the same thing as ‘statistics’. In this book, however, ‘statistics’ is given a wider meaning than ‘data handling’, covering the full range of ideas and concepts that inform one’s thinking when posing and tackling real-world problems where data are used. Although potentially a subject where teaching can be motivating and relevant to everyday concerns, statistics is nevertheless sometimes seen as boring, predominantly involving mechanical calculation.The aim in writing this book is to help teachers and others interested in statistical thinking to become excited about and inspired by the big ideas of statistics and, in turn, to teach them enthusiastically to learners.
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Gonta-ganti Pola Makan















UNTUK memenuhi kebutuhan nutrisi bagi tubuh, kita tetap disarankan untuk menjalankan pola makan dengan gizi seimbang. Seperti apakah bentuk pola makan tersebut?

Dulu, Anda pasti mengenal Empat Sehat Lima Sempurna. Pedoman gizi sehat ini diciptakan oleh Bapak Gizi Indonesia, Prof. Poerwo Soedarmo pada 1950-an yang membagi kelompok-kelompok makanan menjadi :
(1) makanan pokok,
(2) lauk pauk,
(3) sayur-sayuran,
(4) buah-buahan, dan
(5) susu.

Kelima kelompok makanan ini dilambangkan dalam logo berbentuk lingkaran yang menempatkan kelompok makanan 1 sampai dengan 4 di sisi dalam lingkaran mengelilingi kelompok kelima, yaitu susu, di bagian tengah.

Pada 1992, Kongres Gizi Internasional menganjurkan setiap negara untuk menyusun pedoman umum gizi seimbang (PUGS). Departemen Kesehatan Indonesia pun menanggapinya dengan membuat logo PUGS berbentuk piramida yang terdiri atas tiga tingkat. Tingkat paling dasar berisi sumber zat tenaga, yaitu padi-padian, umbi-umbian, dan tepung-tepungan. Di atasnya diisi kelompok makanan sumber zat pengatur, yaitu sayur-sayuran dan buah-buahan; dan di puncaknya berisi kelompok makanan sumber zat pembangun, yaitu gabungan makanan hewani (termasuk susu) dan nabati.

PUGS 1992 ini direvisi pada 2002 dan dilengkapi dengan hasil Widyakarya Nasional Pangan dan Gizi tahun 1998. Slogannya berubah menjadi "13 Pedoman Umum Gizi Seimbang" yang isinya:

1. Makanlah aneka ragam makanan
2. Makanlah makanan untuk memenuhi kecukupan energi
3. Makanlah makanan sumber karbohidrat setengah dari kebutuhan energi
4. Batasi konsumsi lemak dan minyak sampai seperempat dari kecukupan energi
5. Gunakan garam beryodium
6. Makanlah makanan sumber zat besi
7. Berikan ASI saja kepada bayi sampai umur empat bulan dan tambahkan makanan pendamping ASI sesudahnya
8. Biasakan makan pagi
9. Minumlah air bersih yang aman dan cukup jumiahnya
10. Lakukan aktivitas fisik secara teratur
11. Hindari minum minuman alkohol
12. Makanlah makanan yang aman bagi kesehatan
13. Bacalah label pada makanan yang dikemas

Bentuk logo PUGS tahun 2002 tetap sama yaitu piramida. Tapi ada beberapa perubahan, yaitu jumlah tingkat kerucut menjadi empat tingkat. Pada tingkat tiga yang berisi makanan sumber zat pembangun, dibuat secara terpisah antara hewani (termasuk susu) dan nabati (sebelumnya digabungkan). Minyak dan lemak yang sebelumnya tidak ada dimasukkan dalam piramida pada puncak tertinggi. Logo ini juga dilengkapi petunjuk penggunaan masing-masing golongan makanan tersebut dalam bentuk porsi dan kata "gunakan seperlunya" untuk minyak dan lemak.

Healtylife
Edisi 07/VIII - Juli 2009

Makeup Secrets Revealed 2

NIGHT MOISTURIZERS

At the end of the day your skin needs to rejuvenate. At bedtime use a moisturizer that is rich in emollients and which contains ingredients that are designed to hydrate and revitalize your skin while you sleep. Sacha’s Overnight Moisture Lotion contains Babassu Oil, a super-rich emollient, which reduces fine lines and helps control the signs of aging.

NIGHT MOISTURIZERS (with Alpha Hydroxy Acids)

Hydroxy acids are natural ingredients, which gently lift and remove dead cells from your skin. These mild acids are natural exfoliants which increase cell turn over and improve skin texture.

There are two basic types of these natural exfoliants:

• Alpha hydroxy acids have a “drop off” rate which means that it will only work when there are dead cells to exfoliate.

• Beta hydroxy acids do not have a “drop off” rate and will continue to exfoliate even after the point when the dead cells have been removed. They therefore have a greater potential to
irritate the skin.

As often as required, use a night treatment which contains natural exfoliants to remove the dead cells. Sacha’s Overnight Renewal Lotion contains 5% alpha hydroxy acids to gently exfoliate your skin while you sleep. Allantoin contained in this product helps to reduce irritation.

Though abrasive physical facial scrubs are widely used for exfoliation, they have a reputation of irritating the skin. A product containing alpha hydroxy acid is a wiser choice.

The Sacha chemists have cut out all the hoopla and have developed a skin care regime that is simple and very effective. To learn more about our Sacha skin care line, please visit us at: http://www.sachacosmetics.com/skincare.htm.

SKIN LIGHTENERS

At Sacha we have taken a firm position against manufacturing any product designed to lighten your natural skin color. The potential damaging effects of skin lighteners, in our view, far outweigh the perceived benefits.

Bleaching creams as they are commonly called, generally contain hydroquinone which can cause irreparable damage to your skin. Prolonged use inhibits the production of melanin, a natural pigment which protects the skin from all the damaging effects of the sun. It also causes the skin to look transparent as it becomes “thin”.

After discontinuation of use of these products, the skin continues to lighten, sometimes for several years, with no sign of stopping. Dark spots often become very light spots. Prolonged use can also cause your skin to become red, blotchy and blistered.

We strongly advise against using skin lighteners, especially those containing over 5% hydroquinone. We recommend instead that you use a sunscreen during the day containing at least SPF 15 sun protection and an alpha hydroxy exfoliant at nights. This is in our view, a far safer approach.

COMEDOGENIC INGREDIENTS

This is a term used to describe ingredients, which have the potential to clog pores and cause acne. Always bear in mind that acne has been proven to be hereditary and can be influenced by stress, hormonal fluctuations, medications and most certainly by excessive exposure to
sunlight.

Some women have the pre-conceived notion that foundations clog pores. This is simply not true. Unlike in the past, manufacturers today have a host of substitutes for any ingredient that is suspected to be comedogenic or has the potential to clog the pores.

Having said that, for your information, the following are a list of suspect ingredients:
• Acetylated Lanolin
• Acetylated Lanolin Alcohol
• Algin
• Carrageenan
• Cetearyl Alcohol and Ceteareth 20
• Cocoa Butter
• Coconut Butter
• Coconul Oil
• Disodium Monooleamido PEG 2-Sulfosuccinate
• Ethylhexyl Palmitate
• Glyceryl-3-Diisosterate
• Hexadecyl Alcohol
• Isocetyl Stearate
• Isodecyl Oleate
• Isopropyl Isostearate
• Isopropyl Myristate
• Isopropyl Palmitate
• Isostearyl Isostearate
• Laureth
• Lauric Acid
• Myristyl Lactate
• Myristyl Myristate
• Octyl Palmitate
• Octyl Stearate
• Oleth-3
• Oleyl Alcohol
• PEG-16 Lanolin
• PG 2 Myristyl Propionate
• Polyglyceryl-3-Diisosteatate
• Potassium Chloride
• Propylene Glycol Monostearate
• Red Algae
• Sodium Chloride
• Sodium Lauryl Sulfate
• Sorbitan Sesquinoleate
• Soulan 16
• Steareth 10
• Stearyl Heptanonate
• Wheat Germ Oil
• Xylene

FOUNDATIONS
“Dress shabbily, they notice the dress. Dress impeccably, they notice you”.
Coco Chanel
When you walk into a room people must notice you and not your makeup. If they notice your makeup, your makeup is “shabby”. If however they notice you, your makeup is impeccable. This is the Sacha philosophy. Makeup should be used to draw attention to your best features and away from your less flattering ones.

When doing a painting, the artist first primes the canvas with a base color. This primer must have sufficient coverage to conceal the blemishes in the material and provide a smooth surface on which to work. It has to be a neutral color to bring out the colors the artist intends to use. This neutral primer used is white.

A makeup artist, as the name suggests is an artist. The “primer” used is foundation. When doing a makeover, you cannot of course use white, since it will result in a mask-like appearance. You must find a “primer” that matches your natural skin tone.

This “primer” must have good coverage and be neutral enough to allow your eye, cheek and lip makeup to highlight your natural beauty. The greatest challenge facing any makeup artist or makeup wearer is finding the right foundation!

The problem is, from the inception, foundations were not invented to perfectly match our natural skin tones. They were first developed for the movie industry by early cosmetics pioneers such as Max Factor.

These were the days when “white light” was used, causing actors and actresses to look “washed out”. To put color on their faces, cosmetic manufacturers developed foundations with a red base. This era of “pink” foundations dominated the cosmetic market during this period and still forms the basis of many brands today.

As the movie industry developed, natural light was introduced and there was no longer the need for “red” foundations. Manufacturers then began reducing the amount of red used in their formulations to better match various skin tones.

Foundations, for many years however, remained far too red. Later, manufacturers began adding more yellow to their foundations to alter the pink look. The “added yellow” however, gave foundations an unattractive orange look.

During this time, cosmetics manufacturers began recognizing that there was an emerging market for African American cosmetics. They took their existing “red” formulas, darkened them, and foundations for women of color were invented. They however failed to take into account that most darker women have yellow undertones and needed to wear foundations with a yellow base.

In his book “Making Faces”, renowned makeup artist, Kevyn Aucoin, states:
“Years ago, foundation was used specifically to alter the color of the skin, re: ‘rosy glow’. But the trend of the last few years has taken us from what intentionally changed the wearer’s natural coloring to products that match the tones perfectly”.
He later adds:
“ Still, if you choose to wear foundation, there are two important things to consider when selecting a product, the ‘look’ you want to achieve and that it matches your skin”.
At Sacha, we believe that a foundation should provide sufficient coverage to suit the individual’s need and yet remain natural-looking. Your foundation should perfectly match your natural skin color so you do not end up with a “ring” around your face.

From our experience, most Caucasian, African and all Asian and Latin women have yellow-based skin. Yet, most foundations have red or orange tones.

When women with natural yellow undertones wear foundation with a pink or orange base, they often end up with an unnatural looking hue. Women with darker skin tones often turn ashy. Darker African women often look at least one shade darker than their natural skin color.

Because of this, until recently there had been only one “black” Miss Universe in the history of the Pageant. For over twenty years beautiful African delegates would walk out on stage, look ashy under the stage lights, and lose every chance of winning.

After developing our yellow-based foundations we felt that the best way to test them would be on African contestants in beauty pageants. We knew that if dark African delegates did not look ashy on stage then we had hit the jackpot.

And, so we did! The very first beauty contestant who wore our yellowbased foundations was adjudged 2nd Runner Up in the 1997 Miss Universe Pageant. The second one was crowned Miss Universe 1998, wearing our Perfect Copper foundation, and Miss Universe 1999 won the title wearing our Perfect Honey foundation. Our foundations matched their skin tones perfectly without a trace of ashiness.

After twenty years of not having a “black” Miss Universe, we had two in a row, both wearing the same brand of cosmetics - Sacha.

If our foundations could work so beautifully on the most difficult skin tones, imagine how perfect they will be for you.

CHOOSING THE RIGHT FOUNDATION

Foundation is the cosmetic product that women pay the most attention to. It can make the difference between having a natural, flawless finish or looking as if you are wearing a mask.

The foundation market today is saturated with many types and brands of foundations. At the cosmetics counter you are confronted with an array of choices - liquid, cream, oil- free, powder, allergy tested, cake, stick, stay-on, hypoallergenic, cream to powder, non-comedogenic and camouflage foundations. It is indeed quite a mind-blowing experience, especially if you are a first time buyer.

To make it easier for you to determine the type that’s best for you, we have placed foundations into four major categories:

LIQUID FOUNDATIONS

Liquid foundations usually offer sheer coverage and provide a natural look. Most women prefer a liquid foundation because it is easy to apply and fits like a ‘second skin’. They are available in water-based and oilbased formulas.

Sacha’s “Stay-On Color” Liquid Foundation is oil-free and semi-matte. It provides sheer coverage. It is yellow-based and will perfectly match your skin tone. It is suitable for normal, oily or combination skin types.

CREAM FOUNDATIONS

Cream foundations are traditionally the number one choice of makeup artists. They are usually available in compacts or sticks, and provide very good coverage. Foundations of this consistency provide a creamy flawless finish and are easy to apply.

Sacha’s Cream Foundation will perfectly match your skin tone with a flawless, natural-looking finish. It is ideally suited to women with normal, dry or combination skin.

This is the type of foundation most frequently used by our Sacha Makeup artists at international beauty pageants.

Part 1, Part 3, Part 4

Wednesday, August 12, 2009

Makeup Secrets Revealed by Kamla Regrello part-1





















INTRODUCTION

Hi, I’m Kamla Regrello, Head Makeup Artist for Sacha Cosmetics.

Since joining Sacha, I have had the opportunity to travel with my makeup team to several countries to work the international beauty pageants. I was the head makeup artist for the Miss Universe, Miss USA, the Miss Jamaica, the Miss Trinidad and Tobago and several other international pageants.

This is a tremendous experience for me, since I have the opportunity to work with every possible skin tone and skin type. Imagine, just after doing the makeover for Miss Japan, the next delegate to plop herself down on your makeup chair is Miss Nigeria! This is why I love working with the Sacha brand. No matter what skin tone I am faced with, I’m ready.

Over the years, I have also learnt a lot more about makeup from the person who actually manufacturers the Sacha brand. This has given me valuable insight into not only how, but also why some products perform so well and why others simply don’t cut it.

Makeup Secrets Revealed is therefore far more than a step-by-step makeup guide. It is a no-nonsense publication crammed with amazing makeup tips and valuable information straight from the horse’s mouth. I begin by discussing with you how and why you should look after your skin, how to select the right foundation, simple techniques on how you should apply your eye shadow and blush and how to shape your eyebrows.

I will also introduce you to Sacha’s wonderful line of camouflage makeup which easily conceals all skin blemishes, from acne to stretch marks with the same natural coverage as their regular foundations. This is my gift to you. After reading it, if you have any questions, please drop me a line at makeupartists@sachacosmetics.com and I would be happy to answer them.

Sincerely,
Kamla Regrello
Head Makeup Artist
Sacha Cosmetics

===============

SKIN CARE

Beauty begins with the proper caring of the skin. Clear, healthy skin is the perfect canvas for makeup.

Over the years the demand for new products has given rise to much hype in the skin care industry. However, most of the claims made have been largely speculative with very few proven in clinical tests.

At Sacha it has always been our view that a skin care line should be simple, effective and easy to use. It should have as few ingredients as possible to reduce the possibility of skin irritation. Remember, an ingredient, which is beneficial to one person, could seriously irritate
someone else’s skin. In reality, almost all ingredients have the potential to irritate your skin.

UNDERSTANDING YOUR SKIN

Believe it or not your skin is the largest organ of your body. It is a living organ which heals and renews itself constantly. It covers your entire body and consists of two clearly defined layers:

1. The epidermis is the superficial or outermost layer. In other words, this is the skin we can see and feel. It forms the protective covering. This layer contains no blood vessels but has small nerve endings and is made up of five layers of cells. The pigment called melanin is found in this layer. Melanin protects the sensitive cells beneath, from the harmful effects of the sun. The greater the exposure to sunlight the greater the production of melanin.

2. The dermis or the inner layer is located just under the epidermis. This layer is highly sensitive because it contains nerve endings. It also contains numerous blood vessels, lymph vessels, sweat glands, sebaceous glands and hair follicles. These are held together by collagen and elastin fibers, which together give the skin its strength and resilience.

Each hair follicle has a sebaceous gland, which produces sebum. Excess sebum makes your skin look and feel oily. If the neck of a sebaceous gland is clogged, sebum accumulates, giving rise to acne. A deficiency in the production of sebum produces dry skin.

Your teenage years could be your best time or your worst time depending on your hormonal activity. Generally, puberty is a bad time for your skin.

If you are spared the onslaught of acne and pimples usually associated with the teenage years, then more than likely your 20’s and 30’s should be trouble free.

During your 20’s your skin should look its best. It can however be adversely affected by allergies, hormonal imbalances, stress, and exposure to the elements.

In your 30’s your skin may begin to lose the bloom of youth. You may begin to see the appearance of dryness and fine lines. The skin tends to be more sensitive and extra special care is required during this period.

In your 40’s your hormone production slows and the skin begins to lose tone and elasticity, giving rise to wrinkles, creases and fine lines. While these changes occur naturally as you age, they can be minimized and controlled by properly caring for your skin. Cleansing, toning and moisturizing your skin twice daily can help you rejuvenate and revive your skin.

Now that you have a better understanding of your skin and how it works, I am sure you will appreciate that the time to begin your personal skin care routine is NOW!

CLEANSERS

Today’s women have the choice of several different brands and types of cleansers. To simplify matters, we group cleansers into two basic categories: “tissue-off” cleansers and “rinse-off” cleansers.

• Tissue-off cleansers which are normally referred to as “cream” or “milk” cleansers have a high oil content. It is these oils, which combine with and help to remove makeup, facial oils, and grime allowing them to be easily wiped away. “Tissue-off” cleansers are less drying and are more suitable for normal to dry skin types.

• Rinse-off cleansers are water-based and incorporate some type of detergent to help remove makeup and excess oils. This type of cleanser is recommended for women with oily or combination skin. It should be mild enough to gently and effectively cleanse your skin without drying. Gels, foaming cleansers and facial washes are normally referred to as “rinse-off” cleansers.

TONERS

There are many misconceptions about the role of toners and astringents in a skin care routine. Firstly, they are an essential step in the skin care routine. They remove traces of makeup or residue that your cleanser misses, and “prepares” the skin for moisturizing.

The term toner, freshener or astringent is often used interchangeably. If you have normal, combination or oily skin use an astringent containing a low percentage of alcohol and skin soothers like allantoin. For normal to dry skin use an alcohol-free freshener with ingredients such as witch hazel and other natural extracts.

MOISTURIZERS

Moisturizers act as a protective barrier between your skin and the environment. Although your skin manufactures its own oils, it is usually removed during the process of cleansing. It is therefore necessary to replenish these natural oils.

A basic moisturizer should contain water and other ingredients that attract and trap moisture onto the skin. It should also contain emollients which nourish the skin.

DAILY MOISTURIZERS (with Sunscreen)

A mere quarter of a century ago, it was not as important to wear a sunscreen as it is today. The ozone layer, which surrounds the earth, serves to deflect the harmful ultra-violet (UV) rays of the sun. Over the years this layer has steadily deteriorated, allowing through far more harmful UV rays.

Every day you are exposed to UV rays that damages your skin causing sunburn, skin diseases and premature aging. UVB rays cause sunburn especially in the summer while UVA rays are responsible for premature aging. These UV rays are present every day whether the sun is out or
not.

We strongly advise that you wear a sunscreen all year round. Sunscreen is no longer a summer time practice. It must become a part of your daily routine.

Apply sunscreen 30 minutes before exposure to the sun, giving it time to penetrate your skin. Reapply every 3-4 hours as well as immediately after swimming or profuse sweating. A waterproof sunscreen generally stays on about 30 minutes in water.

Sacha’s Daily Moisturizers with SPF 15 sun protection provide both UVA and UVB sun protection. Please bear in mind that a higher SPF does not necessarily mean better protection, but longer protection. An SPF 15 product for instance, will provide you with 95% protection while an SPF 50 product will give you 98% protection. The difference is negligable.

Sacha’s Daily Moisturizer can be used alone or as an “under makeup” base. Moisturizers with a higher SPF factor tend to be too oily. Makeup worn over an oily base has a tendency to become discolored.

Part 2, Part 3, Part 4

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